Edward Plantagenet, I

Male 1239 - 1307  (68 years)


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  • Name Edward Plantagenet, I  [1, 2, 3
    Suffix
    Born 17 Jun 1239  Westminster, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Also Known As Longshanks 
    Birth 17 Jun 1239  Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Ruled Between 1272 and 1307 
    King of England 
    Burial 1307  Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried 1307  Westminster, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Died 07 Jul 1307  Burgh by Sands, Cumberland, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Notes 
    • Edward I (born 1239, ruled 1272-1307) was one of England's greatest kings. He was a handsome man, with fair hair and ruddy cheeks, and so tall that he was nicknamed Longshanks. He delighted in tournaments and hunting, but he was also practical and hardworking. For seven years before he came to the throne, he was the real ruler for his weak father, Henry III (see Henry, Kings of England; Montfort). He was in the Holy Land involved in the crusades when his father died, but there was no question that he would take the throne.
      Edward has been called the "English Justinian" because, like the Roman emperor Justinian, he organized the laws. His laws were not restatements of existing customs but statutes in the modern sense. Many of them, particularly the land laws, had a long-lasting influence. A statute of 1285 limited church courts to strictly church matters a change that Edward's great-grandfather, Henry II, had been unable to make because of the murder of Thomas a Becket (see Becket; Henry, Kings of England). Edward also stopped paying a feudal tribute to the pope.
      Parliament grew in strength during Edward's reign because he continued the policy of Simon de Montfort in summoning to it representatives of the towns and lesser knights. His parliament of 1295 is known as the Model Parliament (see Parliament). In 1297 he reaffirmed the Magna Carta in the famous confirmation of the charters. All of Edward's moves were not fair and admirable ones, however; he forced Jews out of England in 1290.
      Soon after coming to the throne, Edward conquered Wales and gave to his infant son, Edward, the title prince of Wales (see Wales). Until 1289 the care of his French possessions, principally Aquitaine, in Southern France, absorbed much of his attention. For the rest of his life, his main concern was Scotland.
      He conquered the country in 1296; but in 1297 all Scotland rose in revolt against him under the popular leader, William Wallace. Edward defeated Wallace at Falkirk the next year, but the Scots still resisted. Near the end of Edward's reign Scotland found a new leader in Robert Bruce. In 1307 King Edward, then 70 years old, led an army toward Scotland but died before he reached the border.

      Excerpted from Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia, Copyright c 1993, 1994 Compton's NewMedia, Inc.

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      Edward I, called Longshanks (1239-1307), king of England (1272-1307), of the house of Plantagenet. He was born in Westminster on June 17, 1239, the eldest son of King Henry III, and at 15 married Eleanor of Castile. In the struggles of the barons against the crown for constitutional and ecclesiastical reforms, Edward took a vacillating course. When warfare broke out between the crown and the nobility, Edward fought on the side of the king, winning the decisive battle of Evesham in 1265. Five years later he left England to join the Seventh Crusade. Following his father's death in 1272, and while he was still abroad, Edward was recognized as king by the English barons; in 1273, on his return to England, he was crowned.

      The first years of Edward's reign were a period of the consolidation of his power. He suppressed corruption in the administration of justice, restricted the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to church affairs, and eliminated the papacy's overlordship over England.

      On the refusal of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd (died 1282), ruler of Wales, to submit to the English crown, Edward began the military conflict that resulted, in 1284, in the annexation of Llewelyn's principality to the English crown. In 1290 Edward expelled all Jews from England. War between England and France broke out in 1293 as a result of the efforts of France to curb Edward's power in Gascony. Edward lost Gascony in 1293 and did not again come into possession of the duchy until 1303. About the same year in which he lost Gascony, the Welsh rose in rebellion.

      Greater than either of these problems was the disaffection of the people of Scotland. In agreeing to arbitrate among the claimants to the Scottish throne, Edward, in 1291, had exacted as a prior condition the recognition by all concerned of his overlordship of Scotland. The Scots later repudiated him and made an alliance with France against England. To meet the critical situations in Wales and Scotland, Edward summoned a parliament, called the Model Parliament by historians because it was a representative body and in that respect was the forerunner of all future parliaments. Assured by Parliament of support at home, Edward took the field and suppressed the Welsh insurrection. In 1296, after invading and conquering Scotland, he declared himself king of that realm. In 1298 he again invaded Scotland to suppress the revolt led by Sir William Wallace. In winning the Battle of Falkirk in 1298, Edward achieved the greatest military triumph of his career, but he failed to crush Scottish opposition.

      The conquest of Scotland became the ruling passion of his life. He was, however, compelled by the nobles, clergy, and commons to desist in his attempts to raise by arbitrary taxes the funds he needed for campaigns. In 1299 Edward made peace with France and married Margaret, sister of King Philip III of France. Thus freed of war, he again undertook the conquest of Scotland in 1303. Wallace was captured and executed in 1305. No sooner had Edward established his government in Scotland, however, than a new revolt broke out and culminated in the coronation of Robert Bruce as king of Scotland. In 1307 Edward set out for the third time to subdue the Scots, but he died en route near Carlisle on July 7, 1307.

      "Edward I," Microsoft (R) Encarta. Copyright (c) 1993 Microsoft Corporation. Copyright (c) 1993 Funk & Wagnall's Corporation

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      World Book Encyclopedia

      Edward I (1239-1307) became king of England in 1272. As king, he conquered Wales and tried to gain control of Scotland. Edward belonged to the Plantagenet family of English rulers.

      Edward I was born in Westminster (now part of London). He succeeded his father, Henry III, as king. Edward fought two wars against the Welsh, one in 1277 and another in 1282 and 1283. He conquered Wales in the second war. In 1301, Edward gave the title Prince of Wales to his son, who later became Edward II. Since then, it has become customary for English monarchs to give the title to their oldest son.

      In 1292, Edward chose John de Balliol as ruler of Scotland from among several men who claimed the Scottish throne. Edward demanded that Balliol pay homage to him. But this demand humiliated the Scottish people, causing them to revolt. In 1296, Balliol joined the rebel forces, but Edward forced him to surrender. Edward then took to England the Stone of Scone, the stone upon which Scottish kings had been given royal power for hundreds of years. He placed the stone in Westminster Abbey, where English monarchs were crowned.

      But the Scots continued to fight England. They were led first by William Wallace and then by Robert Bruce. Bruce was crowned king of Scotland in 1306. Edward died while on his way to subdue the new king.

      Edward's Scottish policy resulted in hostile relations between the English and the Scots for the next 250 years. It also led to an alliance between Scotland and France. As a result, England had to fight both countries at the same time. Edward's need for money to supply his army and government led him to call Parliaments more often than had any previous king. These Parliaments consisted of representatives of the nobility, the church, and common people. In return for grants of money from Parliament, Edward agreed that taxes could be levied only with Parliament's consent. He also sponsored laws on more topics than any previous king.

      Edward I was not the first English king named Edward. People in England give numbers to their kings and queens with the same name only if the monarchs ruled after the Norman Conquest of 1066. There were three Anglo-Saxon kings named Edward who ruled England before 1066: Edward the Elder (870?-924), Edward the Martyr (963?-978?), and Edward the Confessor (1002?-1066). See EDWARD THE CONFESSOR.

      Contributor: John Gillingham, Senior Lecturer, London School of Economics and Political Science, Univ. of London.
    Person ID I1941  mytree
    Last Modified 2 Jun 2016 

    Family 1 Eleanor Castile,   b. Abt 1244, Castilla y Leon, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 24 Nov 1290, Harby, Nottinghamshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 46 years) 
    Married 18 Oct 1254  Burgos, Castilla-Leon, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Married Abbey of Las Huelgas, Burgos, Castilla-Leon, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Abbey of Santa Marķa la Real de Las Huelgas 
    Children 
    +1. Edward Plantagenet, II,   b. 25 Apr 1284, Caernarfon, Gwynedd, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Sep 1327, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 43 years)
    Last Modified 2 Jun 2016 
    Family ID F977  Group Sheet

    Family 2 Marguerite Hardi,   b. 1279, Paris, Īle-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 14 Feb 1317, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 38 years) 
    Married 10 Sep 1299  Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
    +1. Thomas Plantagenet,   b. 01 Jun 1300, Brotherton, Yorkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Aug 1338  (Age 38 years)
     2. Edmund Plantagenet,   b. 05 Aug 1301, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 19 Mar 1330, Winchester, Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 28 years)
     3. Eleanor Plantagenet,   b. 04 May 1306, Winchester, Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1311, Amesbury, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 4 years)
    Last Modified 2 Jun 2016 
    Family ID F978  Group Sheet

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 17 Jun 1239 - Westminster, London, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBirth - 17 Jun 1239 - Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 18 Oct 1254 - Burgos, Castilla-Leon, Spain Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 10 Sep 1299 - Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBurial - 1307 - Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - 1307 - Westminster, London, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 07 Jul 1307 - Burgh by Sands, Cumberland, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - Abbey of Santa Marķa la Real de Las Huelgas - - Abbey of Las Huelgas, Burgos, Castilla-Leon, Spain Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Maps 
     = Link to Google Earth 
    Pin Legend  : Address       : Location       : City/Town       : County/Shire       : State/Province       : Country       : Not Set

  • Sources 
    1. [S74] Internet, http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/a/n/g/Dr-dan-L-Anglin/GENE6-0069.html.

    2. [S74] Internet, http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/a/n/g/Dr-dan-L-Anglin/GENE6-0031.html.

    3. [S74] Internet, http://www.dcs.hull.ac.uk/cgi-bin/gedlkup/n=royal?royal01261.


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